The First Tentative Steps
The first Odia film started with a talkie, made by Rasa Leela (Folk Opera) director Mohana Sundara Deba Goswami (1892-1948), in 1934, with the 12-reel, 2 & 1\2 hour long, ‘Sita Bibaha’. With 14 song sequences and a budget of Rs.29,781 & 10 Annas, its first print was released on 27th March 1936, after nearly 2yrs of gestation. It was released at Puri’s Laxmi Talkies in April, 1936. The film was cleared by the Bengal Board of Film Certification with Police Commissioner of Lal Bazar personally handing over the certificate.
A mythological, ‘Sita Bibaha’ is a landmark film in the history of Odia cinema for more reasons than one. What sets apart the film even now, is the fact that all the singers in the movie were from Odisha, and Mohana Sundara knew his job well enough to use the traditional music of the land.
Although the film enthralled the audience and created a sensation for this European art in the newly-formed state of Odisha, the13-year-long hiatus between the first and the next film produced by Great Eastern Movietone, ‘Lalita’ in 1949 points to the fact that film making made inroads in to Odhisha slowly. The reasons are not too difficult to find. In the mid-thirties the talkies overtook silent films and the infrastructure for film production like labs, theatres and distribution systems developed in three or four cities. Since the British entered India through Bengal, Calcutta had the sole privilege of having the infrastructure for film shoots, such as studios and post-production facilities in the eastern region. Odia films depended heavily on the infrastructure that was available at Calcutta. Consequently film making in Odisha was both difficult and, perhaps, commercially not viable.
Odia cinema gained some momentum in the 1950`s despite these difficulties and almost 10 films were produced by the end of the decade. Two films, ‘Sapta Sajya’ directed by Kalyan Gupta and, ‘Sri Jagannath’ directed by Chittaranjan Mitra at the beginning of the decade. In 1952 Kalyan Gupta again directed an Odia film with an English title, ‘Rolls to Eight’.‘Sri Loknath’ , an Odia film, produced by Rupa Raghab Pvt. Ltd, directed by Prafulla Sengupta received a national award for the first time. Though the number of Odia films produced increased dramatically, four films in 1962 and seven in 1963, the producers had to depend on the facilities available at Calcutta and professional actors from the local stage at Cuttack and Puri. But efforts to break this dependence was already underway.
Early Production Houses and Film Producers
In 1959, Kabiraj Krushna Chandra Tripathy Sharma of Aska (Ganjam) deviated from the trodden path and took amateur artists from all over Odisha to make his maiden venture, ‘Sri Sri Maha Laxmi Puja’ under the banner of ‘Utkal Chalchitra Pratisthan’, the first co-operative venture in Odisha to produce, distribute and exhibit Odia films. He produced three films consecutively and dubbed three other language films into Odia to sustain the co-operative. As a result of this various types of films were produced in Odisha from 1960 to 1969, which brought recognition for Odia cinema and gave it a new identity at the national level.
Krushan Chandra Tripathy`s endeavour inspired two amateur artists Dhira Biswal and Sarat Pujari. In 1961 a new production house ‘PANCHA SAKHA’ was launched by Dhira Biswal, which produced four films debuting with ‘Nua Bou’. His other successful films are ‘Manika Jodi’ , ‘Kedar Gouri’ , ’Kei-Kahar’, all creating a sensation in the entire state. However, gradually, ‘PANCHA SAKHA’ languished due to financial problems and folded up.
Subsequently, veteran actors ,Gour Prasad Ghosh and Parbati Ghose, a husband–wife team, personally produced four films, ‘Maa’, ‘Laxmi’ ‘Kaa’ and ‘Stree’, out of which, the last three bagged the President’s award.
Sarat Pujari was another entrepreneur whose initiative led to the birth of a production house. Diamond Valley Productions Pvt. Ltd., was formed at Sambalpur and produced its first ‘Sadhna’. Unfortunately it did mot survive long and `Sadhana` was the first as well as the last film it produced. Some other individuals who stepped into film production were Srinivas Paikray, ‘Jeevan Sathi’ Saumendra Misra, ‘Surya Mukhi’, Sree Films’, ‘Malha Jahna’ all of which received the Presidents award but could not survive beyond making one film each. A total number of twenty-five films were produced between 1936-1966, of which the following films received Certificates of Merit and Silver Medals. Films which received the Certificate of Merit are 1. Nua bou, 2. Surya
Mukhi 3 .Nari 4 .Kaa 5. Adina Megha 6. Naba Janma and those that received the Silver Medal are 1. Sri Loknath 2. Jeeban Sathi 3. Sadhna 4. Malha Jahna 5. Matira Manisha 6. Arundhati.
Odia cinema and its culture will remain greatly indebted to Babulal Doshi, a Gujrati domiciled in Cuttack, who established KALA VIKAS KENDRA. This centre evolved into a major centre for training in Odissi dance and music. Babulal Doshi produced ‘Amada Bata’, ‘Abhinetri’, ’Matira Manisha’, and ‘Adina Megha’. His film ‘Matira Manisha’ , directed by Mrinal Sen, remains a classic and was instrumental in putting Odia Cinema on the international map. This film as well as his other film ‘Adina Megha’ received the President’s award.
PRAMOD PATI (1932-1975) is a pioneer in the area of animation and remains a key figure in its the growth and development in India. His contribution to the field of cinema in the early sixties is immense. Pati is best known for his experimental work in animation and is regarded as the Father of Indian animation films.
Pramod Pati, after graduating from Utkal University in 1950, took a diploma in Cinematography from S.J. Polytechnic, Bangalore, in 1952, and then worked with the Odisha Government as film officer from 1952 to 1956. During this period he made fourteen films as Cinematographer, Scriptwriter, and Editor. He was awarded Govt. of India fellowship to study puppet animation at FAMU, in Prague, Czechoslovakia, under Jiri Brdecka, Edward Hoffman and Jiri Trnka. Returning to India he joined Films Division, Mumbai, as head of its animation unit in 1959 and there began the journey of Indian animation cinema.
Films Division which was set up in 1949 at Mumbai, by the Information & Broadcasting Ministry, Govt. of India, was full of exuberance in the early sixties. There was a mellifluous combination of rebellious, independent filmmakers like S. Sukhdev, K.S. Chari, Glen Baptista, Fali Billimoria and Pramod Pati. They all congregated at Films Division to fulfil their creative urges. Pati was the maker of a one minute classic film ‘MAN AND HIS WORLD’ which won the Silver medal at the Montreal Expo-67. He was also the first Odia filmmaker to receive a Film Fare award at Mumbai in 1968 for his short film, ‘PERSPECTIVE’.
Pati’s was not a conscious effort to make something different for its own sake but to align his art with his own artistic and idealistic concerns. His ‘EXPLORER’ is a fine example of such an endeavour. Pati must have taken a risk to make such a film within the constaints of the Films Division. The types of films popularized by Norman McLaren, Len Lye, Lotte Reiniger, Maya Deren and by the American underground filmmakers can’t be found in India. Such films are a luxury here. John Grierson is said to have criticized Pati for his artistic inclination. But as film critic Amrit Gangar puts it, “…S Pati was a man of ‘prayog’ who stuck to his own experience and integrity.”
Famous animator and CEO of Ram Mohan Biographics, Mr. Ram Mohan who worked with Pati in his initial days as an animator at Films Division says, “It is to Mr. Pati’s credit that he led his team of artists into a journey of creative exploration, steering them with a set of new sensibilities. Pati had initiated the totally innovative graphic style of East Europe and he encouraged us at the animation unit of Films Division to adopt it in our designs. His films, ‘Wives and Wives’, and ‘Industrial workers’ show a distinct trend in graphic innovation and stylized animation. I was encouraged to create a set of characters that were simple in graphics and distinctively Indian. They populated Pati’s films like ‘Healthy and Happy’ and ‘Mansube Machhlidar’. He led us into less visited areas of animation technique like time-lapse photography, pixilation and stop-motion. Under him the animation film unit began to grow and realize its potential. With Pati’s untimely departure the unit came under a dark shadow of indifference and neglect from which it has not yet emerged.”
While Pati was making his famous film ‘ABID’, Mumbai’s culture bazaar was buzzing with news of his experiments. Journalists eagerly reported the progress day by day. Junior Statesman, an influential Calcutta-based youth magazine even sent its correspondent Rima Kashyap to feature it as its cover story. Many movie moguls visited Pati’s shooting set out of curiosity. Even Satyajit Ray, who was visiting Mumbai for a few days, did not miss the chance to peep in. Later Pati was diagnosed with cancer. Despite the determined, even heroic effort of many including Mrs. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, who arranged for his treatment abroad, the disease progressed and Pati died of cancer at the age of 43 on 29th Jan 1975. Pati’s early death was a tragic loss to experimental cinema of the world. His retrospective was held at the Mumbai International Film Festival in 1998, at Cuttack in 2003, at Jamshedpur in 2004.Pamod Pati was an epoch-making personality in Indian cinema, whose films were awarded in 26 various international film festivals of the world between 1960 to 1974.
Film and Television Institute
In 1960 the Film and Television Institute of India (FTII) was set up by the Govt. of India at Pune, which became one of the best film study centres in the world, and was only one of its kind in Asia in those days. During the 1960s a few courageous young dreamers from Odisha like Sadhu Meher (63-66), A.k.Bir (66-69), Surendra Sahoo and Jai Krushna Patra (67-70), Sagir Ahmed (68), Nirad Mahapatra (68-71), Ravi Patnaik (69-72) passed through portals of FTII and all of them subsequently left their indelible impression on the history of cinema. In 1974 three Odia graduates from the FTII, Sadhu Meher (Actor), A.K. Bir (Cinematographer) and Ravi Patnaik (Editor), bagged National Awards for the film, ‘27DOWN’. Sagir Ahmed joined FTII as a professor of screenplay writing. Nirad Mahapatra who was admired for a keen understanding of the theory of cinema, joined the faculty of Film Direction at FTII as a lecturer and worked there from 1972 to74. Many acclaimed filmmakers of the country, namely Girish Kasarvalli, Vidhu Vinod Chopra, Janu Baruah, Manmohan Mohapatra were his students. By this time on the national level two FTII alumni Mani Kaul and Kumar Sahani, inspired by the French New Wave of Godard, Robert Bresson, Francois Truffaut and Erich Rohmer in 1966, began the ‘New Wave’ movement in Indian cinema. Subsequently most of the young Odia
graduates of the FTII went on to make films which earned a lot of awards and respectability to Odia cinema.
Odia Cinema in the 70`s
Pati was the first Odia filmmaker to make a colour film, ‘This Our India’ in 1961. But the first Odia feature film in colour was ‘Gapa hele bi sata’, produced by Subimal Mallik of Swati Films, Cuttack, in 1976. The next colour film was ‘Shesha Sraban’, directed by Prasanta Nanda, a huge commercial success. Prasanta Nanda remade it in Hindi under the title ‘Naiya’ with the same lead actor Prasanta Nanda and the film was produced by Rajshree Productions of Mumbai. Nanda, thereafter, made another Hindi film ‘Paheli’, unfortunatelya flop.
In 1975 the Odisha Film Development Corporation was established to promote Odia films and development of infrastructure. Kalinga Studio Pvt. Ltd. came up in 1980 in collaboration with Prasad studio of Chennai. Later they set up the Kalinga-Prasad Labs. Sudhansu Rath afte his brief stint at Hollywood as maintenance engineer established his own Dynamic Studio at Bhubaneswar in 1984.
The quantity of Odia films went up comparatively, but was limited between 8 and 10 films per year between 1975 and 80. But it came no where near the southern states. While Kerala and Karnataka were producing on average 50 films per year, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Peadsh were producing more than 100 films per year. But in comparison to Bengal and Maharastra, Odia cinema was doing quite well. While Bengal produced about 20 films Maharastra, despite having the biggest film industry of the world, produced only 6 to 8 films per year.
In the meanwhile Sisir Misra from Brahmapur and Prasant Nanda from Nimapada emerged as successful commercial film makers. Misra’s hit films are ‘Sindur Bindu’,’Suna Sansar’,’Samay bada Balban’, ‘Aie Ama Sansar’,’Bastra Haran’, ‘Suna Bhauja’, ‘Sabat Maa’. Later on he went on to make 4 Hindi films namely, ’Bhigi Palkein’, ’Samay Ki Dhara’, ‘Billu Badshah’ and ‘TADA’. Prasanta Nanda gave some hit films in Odia like ‘Maa o Mamta’, ‘Puja’, ‘ Balidan’ etc. Bijoya Jena, from Cuttack was the first Odia girl to join the FTII at Pune to study film acting. She, then , went on to bag a role in a British film, ‘Deceiver’(1981) directed by Nicholas Mayer of Ismail Merchant Productions. She played the lead in Odia films, ‘Ashar Akash’, ‘Hakim Babu’, ‘Jaga Balia’, ’Hira Nila’ etc. Mahesweta was the most sought after actress in Odisha in the 70s and 80s. Sadhu Meher performed in many award winning Hindi films ‘Bhuvanshome’(1969), ‘27Down’(1974) ,‘Ankur’(1974), ‘Nishant’(1975), Gharonda’(1977), ‘Debsishu’(1985,Bengali), ‘Charachar’(1993,Bengali).
Odias in Mumbai Film Industry
Odias were not only making a name for themselves in just acting or producing films but also making a mark in other areas of film making. Siva Misra (Cinematographer,1972) and Pran Misra (Audio engineer,1973) from Puri, are two successful Odia FTII graduates who have made a mark in the Mumbai film world. Pran Misra is well know in the music industry, recording and mixing lots of hit film songs. Shiva Misra is the cinematographer of block buster Hindi films like ‘Aaj Ke Sholay’(1990), ‘Andaz’(1993), ’Ankahee’(1993), ’Mr. Azad’(1994). Audiographer Rakesh Ranjan hails from Bhubaneswar, and has designed the sound track for more than 70 Hindi films which include ‘Ghayal’, ’Ashoka’, etc. Another Odia doyen from the FTII is Uday Shankar Pani from Brahmapur of the 1974 batch. One of the most sought-after production designers for foreign productions in India, he was 1st Asst. Director in Richard Attenborough’s Oscar- winning ‘Gandhi’. Pani is also a trendsetter for making a Odia-Bengali bilingual film ‘Michha Maya Ra Sansar as his debut film’. Co-producing a German feature film with Lisa Films and Bollywood Movies, titled, ‘The Hotel of Dream-India’ is his latest achievement. Sanjay Routray is another famous Odia Line Producer in Mumbai. This list is, by no stretch of imagination, not exhaustive. Due to paucity of space it has not been possible to discuss many talented Odia film technicians who have made a name for themselves in Mumbai and elsewhere.
Film Societies and a new Consciousness
Nirad Mahapatra formed a film society at Bhubaneswar in 1974 called ‘Cinexstacy.’ This society screened classics of World Cinema regularly. Though it was a little late in the day ( such film societies existed in Bengal way back in the 1940`s) it contributed immensely to the development of a new consciousness and a taste for good cinema. Since 1934, Odia cinema has given more than 350 films. But it is the art house cinema of the 1980s that revived the status of Odia cinema .A generation of talented filmmakers, most of them are graduates of FTII, Pune, contributed immensely to this revival of good cinema.
Nirad Mohapatra`s debut feature film ‘Maya Miriga’ (The Mirage) in Odia bagged 2nd Best Feature Film National award in the year 1984. It was also screened at Cannes as well as in London, Los Angeles, Mannheim, and the Hawaii film festivals. Its cinematographer was Raju Misra, who later made some blockbusters in Odia like ‘Ulka’, ‘Chaka Akhi Sabu Dekhichi’, ‘Pua Mora Kala Thakura’ etc. Another noteworthy film produced in 1983 is ‘Dhare Alua’, directed by Sagir Ahmed.
In the meanwhile, Bhadrakh-born A.K.Bir was making a name for himself as a cinematographer of great merit. He grabbed the National Cinematography award for Telugu film, ‘Dasi in 1989. He also received his 3rd National Cinematography award for his directorial debut Odia film, ‘Adi Mimansha’ (A Rare Solution) in 1991, majorly noticed for its visual beauty, its colour, and its photography. A.K.Bir helped Odia cinema to come out of its hibernation and reach the international arena. His other outstanding films are ‘Lavanya priti’(1993), ‘Aranyak’ (1994, Hindi), ‘Shesha Drusti’(1997), ‘Nandan’(1999), ‘Baaz’(Hindi2002), ’Hamari Beti’(Hindi).
Another notable film maker to come out of FTII is Manmohan Mahapatra .He passed out of FTII in 1975 and went on to make many important Odia films. He is known for his ‘Humanist cinema’. He has survived the ravages of consumerism devouring Odia cinema. Amost all his films have won National awards. His path-breaking Odia film is ‘Sita Rati’(Cold night,1982). His other major films are ‘Nirab Jhad’, ‘Klanta Aparhna’, ‘Majhi Pahacha’, ‘Kichhi Smruti Kichhi Anubhuti’, ‘Andha Diganta’, ‘Muhurta’. His latest film, ‘Bits and Pieces’ is in Hindi (2008), starring Rahul Bose and Nandita Das.
Many other film technicians passed out from FTII between 1980 and 1995 and made a name for themselves. Cinematographer Jugal Debta supported Odia cinema by producing ‘Asha Ra Akash’, ’Badhu Nirupama’, as well as remained busy as a cinematographer with BBC and other documentary filmmakers. Bidhusri Bindhani got the National Award for Best Cinematography for the Odia film ‘Nirab Jhad’ in 1984. Prabhat Parida shot a Malayalam film, ‘Samandaram’, directed by John Sankaramangalam. Bibek Satpathy edited the milestone, ‘Maya Miriga’, Mohamad Hussain made his first English feature in Odisha, ‘Unwanted’, produced by Bidhan Patnaik.
Avant-garde Odia filmmakers of the 1980-90s
Avant-garde Odia filmmakers of the 1980-90s countered the old narrative school of story-telling with their debut shorts. Filmmakers like Sagir Ahmed, Dilip Patnaik, Susant Misra, Santosh Gour, Sambit Mohanty have come out of the narcissistic mould narrative cinema and have broken new ground.
Sagir Ahmed’s ‘Avritti’, Manmohan Mahapatra’s ‘The Anti Memoir’, Dilip Patnaik’s ‘Sandhyalok’, and ‘Sahar Se Dur’, Susant Misra’s ‘Nischal Badal’, Santosh Gour’s ‘Nirjan Godhuli’, Sambit Mohanty’s ‘Tat Twam Asi’, A.K.Bir’s ‘The Desert King’ are important contributions in this direction.
‘Nirjan Godhuli’ (The Silent Dusk, Hindi, 1993) made by an Odia FTIIan, Santosh Gour, is a non-narrative film which attempts to understand certain emotions and reactions they cause in people. ‘Nirjan Godhuli’ was showcased at Oberhausen, Mumbai and other International Film Festivals. It was awarded with ‘Spectrum India’ at Mumabi. The SCREEN WEEKLY wrote in its 22nd Oct 1993 issue, ‘...it is people like Santosh Gour who keep this industry moving forward.’ ‘Nirjano Godhuli’ was edited by Dilip Panda who later went on to edit Govind Nihalni’s ‘Drohkal’. It was also Malay Ray’s debut film as Cinematograper. Later Malay directed an art house Odia film, ‘Mokshya’ and got establishedas one of creative camerapersons in Mumbai. Since then Santosh Gour has been a visiting faculty at major film schools in India. He has made a few documentaries to preserve Odia culture on celluloid, namely, Sakhi Pila, Procession of Goddess Kali of Ganjam, Shadheikala Chhau dance, Struggle for Identity etc. These have been screened at various international film festivals, including New York, Dhaka, Oberhausen, Bilbao, Spain) and Ebensee(Austria). He designed the audio tracks for films, ‘Dreamers’ (English), ‘Triya Charitra’, and ’Sarita ki Shartein’ by Basu Chatterjee, ‘Biswa Praksah’ (Odia) bySusant Misra, and for many other foreign documentaries.
Needless to say, Films Division has been pivotal in producing documentaries based on subjects from Odisha. These films are ‘Patta Chitra’, ‘Mayurbhanj Chhau Dance’, ‘Wood carvings of Odisha’, ‘Dr,Radhanath Rath’ ‘Binod Kanungo’, ’Sakhi Pila’, ‘Chilika’, ‘Tourist Odisha’, ‘Art in Metal’, ‘Bhitar Kanika’, ‘Handicrafts of Odisha’, ‘Biju Patnaik- The Eagle of storm’, ‘White Tigers of Nandankanan’, ‘Thakurani Jatra Of Ganjam’, ‘Shamin of Perpang’( Saura paintings), and others.
In 1995 Susant Misra’s Odia film, ‘Indra Dhanura Chhai’ (Shadow of Rainbow), produced by Jugal Debta, was the sole Indian film at Cannes in the ‘Un Certain Regard’ section. It also picked up the Grand Prix at the Sochi International FilmFestival, Russia, for ‘poetic conciseness and preciseness of cinematic language’. His next Odia film, ‘Biswa Prakash’ (The Young Rebels) with Nandita Das in its lead, bagged the National Award for best Odia film in 2000. With a fine tapestry of audio track designed by Santosh Gour, it is another important film in World Cinema.
New Developments and a New Crop of Film Makers and Technicians
During the shooting of ‘Biswa Prakash’ the concept of ‘Bring Your Own Film Festival’ (BYOFF) was mooted by Susanta and was discussed among Debdas Chhotray, Jugal Debta and Santosh Gour which finally materialized in 2004 as a most unique film festival held every year at Puri in collaboration with Inscreen Film Club of Bhubaneswar.
Another fest, the ‘Film Festival on Art and Artists’ at Bhubaneswar became a regular yearly event. This has been envisaged by Jatin Das Centre of Arts (JDCA) since 2006.
From 1995 onward several sound engineers have a made a mark in Indian cinema. Debashis Misra, Subash Sahoo, Manas Choudhry, Naihar Samal, Namita Nayak, from FTII ,are the pioneers in synchronized sound recording technology. They have started ruling the Mumbai film industry in their field. Namita Nayak from Brahmapur is India’s first woman sound engineer, and bagged Best Audiography Filmfare Award for the film, ’1942-A Love Story’ in 2006. Nihar Samal received National Award in 1997. Subash Sahoo got Filmfare and National awards in 2008 for ‘Omkaara’(Hindi). Manas grabbed AIIFA (2008) award for ’Chak de’ and Film fare award for ‘Firaq’ in 2010. Sukant Panigrahi who hails from Brahmapur, received Filmfare award as Best Art Director for ‘Dev D’ in 2010. Nandita Das too got Filmfare Special Jury Award for her directorial debut ‘Firaq’, in 2010. Earlier Ajit Patnaik from Aska, Ganjam, was awarded as Best Art Director for his swanky set designing in teleserial ‘TipuSultan’ in 1997.
Young cinematographers from Odisha, Sukumar Jatania, Jogendra Panda, Malay Ray, Chirantan Das, Satya Rath have made Mumbai their base and their contribution to Indian cinema is considerable. Satya has made immense contribution in the field of stop-motion animation films in India . Two years ago, cinematographer Jogendra Panda understood the impact of 3D when he saw an underwater scene in a studio in London. Panda who hails from Paralakhemundi, is among the few who started working towards the development of 3D in India, long before James Cameron’s Avatar mesmerized the world. Panda came back from London and began experimenting with developing his own 3D camera. IDream Production, a production and distribution company, financed the project. He began work on his 3D set-up in August and completed it in March 2010.
A Film Advisory Board was established at Cuttack in 1995 to issue censor certificates. In 1998 the Govt. of Odisha set up the Biju Patnaik Film & Tv Institute of Odisha, at Cuttack. Sudhansu Rath afte his brief stint at Hollywood as maintenance engineer established his own Dynamic Studio at Bhubaneswar in 1984.
Let’s not forget the contribution of woman film makers in Odia cinema. Sailaja Nanda made ‘Samar, Salim, Saimon’ in 1979. Parvati Mahapatra Ghosh made ‘Chhaman Atha Gubtha’ in 1986. Dolly Jena received National Award with her debut Odia film ’Tara’ in 1992. Her second film was ‘Abhas’. Nandita got the Filmfare award for her debut film ‘Firaq’ in 2010. But the one who hit the headlines of the world by grabbing best feature award at New Jersey, received Special Jury prize at Berkeley and the Richard Vague award, and travelled to San Francisco, Los Angeles, Oregon and Mumbai with her debut feature film ‘Karma Calling’ in 2009 is none other than Jamshedpur-born Odia girl Sarba Das.
Odia cinema has come a long way from its humble beginnings in 1934. The journey has been eventful, though a little uneven. What is lamentable is that in its 75th year we are still struggling to find an odia identity in our cinema which, more often than not, seems like a sad imitation of other regional and mainstream hindi cinema. However, on the positive side, there is no dearth of talent. The need of the hour is to utilize that talent pool with the help of the-Government and the private sector to take Odia Cinema forward and give it a new direction.
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